Stimulants elevate alertness and mood
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Amphetamines affect mood and cognition
Emotional and cognitive effects occur when amphetamines stimulate the central nervous system.
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Amphetamines cause behavioural changes by affecting neurotransmitters in the brain; specifically dopamine and norepinephrine, the main neurotransmitters involved in the brain's reward and executive function pathways. The increased release and accumulation of dopamine resulting from amphetamine use causes euphoric feelings and can affect sexual desire and cognitive and behavioral control. Elevated norepinephrine levels stimulate locomotion and motor control, giving amphetamines potential performance-enhancing effects that have been exploited by some athletes. Amphetamines are highly addictive and the psychological and neurological impacts of withdrawal can be extreme, including depression, anxiety, fatigue, and an overwhelming urge to consume more amphetamines. Long-term use of amphetamines alters dopamine receptors and can result in both cognitive and motor impairments.
[P1] Amphetamines stimulate dopamine and norepinephrine levels to cause euphoria.