Governments that issue their own currency are not constrained by borrowing
“When the government wants to spend, the Fed hits the ‘print’ key, but when it collects taxes it hits the ‘delete’ key. When the government taxes its citizens, it does not ‘get’ something it simply subtracts something from the economy,” according to Stephanie Kelton, the leading proponent of Modern Monetary Theory (MMT). “Congress does not have to borrow—that’s completely optional. Instead the government can let people hold cash. That way there would not be fights over the debt and debt ceiling.” Critics of MMT often argue that such policies could lead to hyperinflation. But Kelton does not see that as a threat in the U.S. “Capacity utilization is at 75%, while the broader unemployment number is still pretty high and workers have no bargaining power. Inflation will not rise if wages continue to stagnate,” said Kelton. “Once inflation does begin to rise, the government can use its taxing power and the central bank can use its policy tool to control it while keeping unemployment at low levels.”
Central banks can print money to buy government bonds. If inflation rises, the government can tax people and the central bank can sell bonds to soak up any extra money causing inflation. The government will be able to act judiciously to avoid hyperinflation by using taxation.