It might encourage use of more dangerous substances
Drugs that show up on school drug tests are less dangerous and associated with very low mortality rates. But, if a student is aware of their school's drug testing policy, they may seek out drugs and substances that will go undetected. These are often substances far more lethal and dangerous.
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Schools should not drug test their high school athletes because the policy may lead to unintended consequences. A drug testing policy may drive students to use far more dangerous drugs and substances that are less detectable by a drug test. Because marijuana is the most detectable drug, with traces of THC remaining in the body for weeks, students may take drugs that exit the body quickly, like methamphetamine, MDMA, or inhalants. Moreover, knowing alcohol is less detectable, they may also engage in binge drinking, creating health and safety risks for students and the community as a whole.  Drug testing high school athletes might encourage the switch from drugs that are less associated with morbidity and mortality, like marijuana, to drugs that can have consequences closer to death.
High school athletes should be drug tested by their schools. If there are students that are willing to turn to far more dangerous substances because they are less detectable, it is likely that they already have problems with drug use with more moderate drugs like marijuana. The randomness of high school drug testing can still catch and get these students the help, treatment, and intervention they need. However, choosing not to drug-test at all does not help to accomplish that goal. Moreover, instead of turning to more dangerous drugs or substances, many students may choose to forgo drugs altogether, afraid of punishment. Drug testing high school athletes is a way to potentially reduce drug use in schools and quickly intervene on behalf of students who need help.