Jews are an ethnically diverse religious group
Jews cannot be categorized as a race because they are defined by their religious beliefs rather than their racial identity. Racism is the process whereby certain characteristics, like religion, are taken as signs of biological difference. Therefore, considering Jews as a race fuels anti-Semitic sentiment. This argument stems from the fact that Judaism is a religion. Judaism does not fit in the classification of a race because anyone can become a Jew by converting. The convert is considered a Jew in every regard. There are Jews from a variety of races, including African-American Jews, Indian Jews, and Latino Jews. Therefore, Jews are an ethnically diverse religious group. They have a shared religious identity rather than a shared racial identity.
One counter-argument comes from genetic research. Scientific evidence suggests that Jews are a distinct biological race. The research of Harry Ostrer, a medical geneticist and professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, suggests that Jews exhibit a distinctive genetic signature. This distinction is enough to define Jews by their racial identity. Another point argues that while Jews may not be a bio-genetic race, they are a socio-historical race. Steven Kaplan, a professor of comparative religion at Hebrew University, asserts that the racial identity of Jews is a cultural reality. It forms a major part of their social identity and self-image. Jewish identity is frequently defined in terms of appearance, descent, and, most recently, genetic heritage. We cannot dismiss these categorizations as only popular misunderstandings because they make up the core social-historical constructions of the Jewish identity.
Rejecting the premises
The Myth of the Jewish Race (book) by Alain F. Corcos: https://lupress.cas.lehigh.edu/content/myth-jewish-race