Criticism raised against Rojava argues that Rojava was not actually an anarchist society from its initiation. Many Western anarchist critics applaud the nation’s striving for equality and a government without hierarchy, but argue that the nation does not actually follow anarchist principles a la Murray Bookchin (popular anarchist philosopher). For example, the presence of a government power isn’t a characteristic of true anarchy. Other criticisms are directed towards the nation's use of women in the militia and what some perceive as forced enlisting into service.
Rojava does not demonstrate that anarchism is possible in modern society. Chiefly, Rojava has recently had to face Turkish attacks upon the United States’ exit from the area in October 2019. These attacks have curbed the society and hindered their success as an anarchist nation. While nations such as Turkey still pose a threat to Rojava, it will be impossible for Rojava to wholly focus on becoming a true anarchist nation.
If Rojava adhered to more of the anarchist qualities, it would be an anarchist community. Instead, it could be defined as a cult or just a human rights group. Therefore, anarchy does not exist today like it did in the past. It’s become more constructive and complicated.