In many states, theocracy an excuse for widespread legitimised oppression especially around gender, sexual orientation or race. In many of the Islamic theocracies, the highly patriarchal and discriminatory laws and cultures, leave women with little political capital and agency. For example, only 6% of Iran's parliament is comprised of women, compared to 29% in the US’ House of Representatives. In Saudi Arabia, women only gained the right to drive in June 2019.  The compulsory wearing of burquas in places like Afghanistan is another sympol of oppression. Theocracy does not allow citizens the freedom to make many personal life choices: for example, in Saudi Arabia it is illegal to convert from Islam to any other religion. Other restrictions include where people who belong to a different religion might be asked to pay additional taxes, be forbidden to vote, or have other rights restricted that those who follow the faith do not experience. From a business perspective, women leaders provide more consistency, innovation, and leadership compared to their male counterparts, yet their ideas are held back in almost every nation that is structured as a theocracy.
What religions or societies do not oppress women? Although the visibility of the burqua may be overt, the insidious undermining of women occurs in most countries. Progressive countries like Switzerland didn’t give women the vote until 1971 and rape in marriage did not become a crime in the UK until 1991. Atrocities such as female genital mutilation and foot binding have permeated the ages alongside voting, abortion and contraception rights. These oppressions all cheerfully occur or occurred outside of theocracies.
[P1] In a theocracy, the leaders have absolute rule and have to abide only with religious text. [P2] This leaves a large amount of opportunity for theocracies to contravene human rights.
Rejecting the premises
[Rejecting P2] Contravention of human rights is not unique to theocracies.