The Pyramids at Giza are an engineering marvel from Egypt’s Old Kingdom period. The largest, the Great Pyramid, is 455 feet high and was constructed from approximately 2.3 million blocks weighing 2.5 tons each. There are many theories as to how the pyramids were built using primitive technology.
The External Ramp Theory
Evidence found at Giza supports the claim that at least some ramps were used. Ramps are commonly found in Egypt supporting other smaller pyramids and monumental structures. There are many variations on this theory. It is the most popular among archaeologists.
The Linear Ramp Theory
Ramps are known to have been used at multiple sites across Egypt to build smaller pyramids. A single linear ramp that would have slowly increased in size as the Pyramids were constructed is the simplest explanation available.
A spiraling or winding ramp may have been used to prevent the problems associated with a single long ramp. This would have taken up less space and allowed workers to move up the face of the pyramid with ease. The remains of a small ram at Giza supports this theory.
A zigzagging ramp would fit with the evidence with have from Giza and other sites that ramps were used. Unlike a long ramp model, it would have been compact and allowed for easy access up the face of the Pyramids.
The Pyramids may have been built in a spiral from the inside-out. The structure of the pyramid itself was used as a ramp. This idea was invented by the Architect Jean-Pierre Houdin and based on the ideas of his engineer father. Recent surveys of the pyramids support this theory.
An internal ramp would work better than an external one
The pyramids may have been built in a spiral from the inside-out. The pyramid itself was used as a ramp. This idea was invented by the architect Jean-Pierre Houdin and based on the ideas of his engineer father. Recent 3D-modelling of the pyramids has given more weight to his theory.
Recent surveys of the Great Pyramid show an internal ramp
Multiple archaeological studies of the Great Pyramid using a range of technologies appear to confirm many aspects of Houdin's theory. Cavities found in the walls point to the remains of an internal ramp.
Builders may have used the steep gradient of the pyramid itself to haul blocks up the sides. In this model, the workers worked on the flat top of the pyramid and used a system of ropes to bring blocks to the top. This theory is popular with engineers.
The Incline Theory is the quickest method to build a pyramid
Most pyramid building theories are extremely complicated. Any system of ramps would be difficult to build safely and slow to use. By using the sides of the pyramids as a slope to move the blocks, Egyptian workers could have moved the stone slabs into place quickly and easily.
Extraterrestrials may have visited Earth in ancient times, imparting the knowledge needed to construct the pyramids. It is possible the ancient aliens left clues to their visit encoded in the pyramids' structure.
Humans did not have the technology or knowledge to build the pyramids
The Pyramids of Giza were a massive undertaking constructed from super-hard granite, with blocks weighing up to 60 tons. Ancient humans would not have been able to cut and move the blocks without alien intervention.
The Pyramids are connected to certain scientific and astronomical phenomena
The Pyramids at Giza line up with Orion's belt and true north, and have some suspiciously clever coordinates. Enthusiastic ufologists claim these are not coincidences but proof of the celestial origins of Egypt's most famous monuments.