The Incline Theory Show more Show less
Builders may have used the steep gradient of the pyramid itself to haul blocks up the sides. In this model, the workers worked on the flat top of the pyramid and used a system of ropes to bring blocks to the top. This theory is popular with engineers.
The Incline Theory is the quickest method to build a pyramid
Most pyramid building theories are extremely complicated. Any system of ramps would be difficult to build safely and slow to use. By using the sides of the pyramids as a slope to move the blocks, Egyptian workers could have moved the stone slabs into place quickly and easily.
There are many problems with all the old pyramid building theories which involve a system of ramps, including the negotiation of tight corners, and a lack of stability. Using the structure of the pyramid itself would have avoided most of these problems. Although the angle of the pyramid is steep at 52-degrees, recent experiments in block hauling at Karnak have shown that it would take less men than previously assumed to move a lubricated 2-ton block on a sled. The engineer James Frederick Edwards calculated that only 50 people would be needed to exert the force of 2 ½ tons needed to pull one of the blocks up the steep pyramid face.  Several engineers have noted this elegantly simple solution would have been quicker than most of the extremely complex ramp-based models. The hauling of blocks up the incline of the pyramid would have taken as little as 3 minutes. Many other models would have taken hours per block. According to this model, the Great Pyramid could have been completed during Cheops’ reign. Another variation on this same model posits that some of the workers hauling the blocks could have stood on the opposite face, using the incline to create additional force and move blocks even faster. The incline model is the simplest and fastest explanation as to how the pyramids could have been built.
The incline theory is popular amongst engineers but not archaeologists because it does not account for the historic evidence. The two written sources we have, by Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, suggest ramps and primitive machines were used to build the pyramids. The archaeological evidence at Giza and elsewhere supports the theory that ramps were used and that earth and/or rubble ramps were commonly used in the construction of monuments. The biggest technical problem with this theory is that as the pyramid got narrower there would be less room for fifty men to stand at the top.  The incline argument does not account for the written or archaeological evidence that we have about pyramid construction. It accounts for how the bottom of the Pyramid was built but not the top.
[P1] 50 strong men can easily haul a block up the pyramid’s face without the need for ramps [P2] This is the quickest method of construction, and the Great pyramid could have been completed during Cheops’ reign [C] The Egyptians probably used the pyramid’s face to haul the blocks